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research-impact [2019/03/17 12:08]
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research-impact [2020/02/11 10:07] (current)
cbdm [Daylight Criteria for UK School Designs]
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 ====== Research + Impact ====== ====== Research + Impact ======
  
-~~NOTOC~~ 
  
-====Impact from research is defined as an effect on, change or benefit to the economy, society, culture, public policy or services, health, the environment or quality of life, beyond academia====+<fs large>**Impact from research is defined as an effect on, change or benefit to the economy, society, culture, public policy or services, health, the environment or quality of life, beyond academia**</​fs>​
  
 Daylighting research carried out by Prof Mardaljevic since the 1990s has resulted in significant real-world impact across a wide range of application areas from professional practice to international standards. Some of the key ones listed below are outlined in this short video. Daylighting research carried out by Prof Mardaljevic since the 1990s has resulted in significant real-world impact across a wide range of application areas from professional practice to international standards. Some of the key ones listed below are outlined in this short video.
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-In 2014 the UK Education Funding Agency (EFA) made CBDM a mandatory requirement for the evaluation of designs submitted for the Priority Schools Building Programme (PSBP). School designs submitted to the PSBP must achieve certain '​target'​ criteria for the useful daylight illuminance metric (proposed by Prof Mardaljevic in 2005). This is believed to be the first major upgrade to mandatory daylight requirements since the introduction of the daylight factor more than half a century ago. The PSBP has a total value of over £10bn.+In 2014 the UK Education Funding Agency (EFA) made CBDM a mandatory requirement for the evaluation of designs submitted for the Priority Schools Building Programme (PSBP). School designs submitted to the PSBP must achieve certain '​target'​ criteria for the useful daylight illuminance metric (proposed by Prof Mardaljevic in 2005). This is believed to be the first major upgrade to mandatory daylight requirements since the introduction of the daylight factor more than half a century ago. The PSBP had a total value of over £10bn. In 2018 the EFA made the CBDM evaluation mandatory for all of its school building programmes
  
 The UK adoption of CBDM in mandatory codes has led to a market transformation in both the skills base (numbers of CBDM practitioners) and the range of available software (developers responded very quickly to this new market opportunity). The UK adoption of CBDM in mandatory codes has led to a market transformation in both the skills base (numbers of CBDM practitioners) and the range of available software (developers responded very quickly to this new market opportunity).
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 +With a large number of properties where daylight is the principal source of light for visitors to see the interiors and contents, the National Trust initiated a research programme in 2013 to better understand daylight performance. The programme seeks to bring together the latest in both illuminance capture techniques with climate-based simulation to refine and develop its systems of daylight management. ​
 +
 +Simulation is being used to explore the consequence of changes in the opening hours on the patterns of cumulative annual daylight exposure experienced by surfaces in the Smoking Room at Ickworth House in Suffolk. Additionally,​ High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging is being used as a means to derive the daylight illumination field (i.e. the light falling onto the surfaces) directly from digital photographs. Thus it becomes possible to measure the light exposure across all the surfaces ‘seen’ by the camera. Deployed in the Smoking Room at Ickworth House this project is believed to be the first use of the HDR technique to measure the long-term light exposure in buildings.
 +
 +[[https://​www.telegraph.co.uk/​news/​earth/​environment/​12115959/​National-Trust-opening-hours-could-change-to-avoid-light-damage-to-art-and-antiques.html|S. Knapton. Technology sheds light on how treasures fade away at stately homes. Sunday Telegraph, 24 January, 2016.]]
  
 [[https://​www.tandfonline.com/​doi/​full/​10.1080/​19455224.2016.1214610|N. Blades, K. Lithgow, S. Cannon-Brookes,​ and J. Mardaljevic. New tools for managing daylight exposure of works of art: case study of Hambletonian,​ Mount Stewart, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Institute of Conservation,​ 40(1):​15–33,​ 01 2017.]] [[https://​www.tandfonline.com/​doi/​full/​10.1080/​19455224.2016.1214610|N. Blades, K. Lithgow, S. Cannon-Brookes,​ and J. Mardaljevic. New tools for managing daylight exposure of works of art: case study of Hambletonian,​ Mount Stewart, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Institute of Conservation,​ 40(1):​15–33,​ 01 2017.]]
  
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 ===== Electrochromic Glazing: Fundamental Design Principles ===== ===== Electrochromic Glazing: Fundamental Design Principles =====
  
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-Since 2011 Prof Mardaljevic has served as 'UK Principal Expert'​ for European Committee for Standardisation CEN/TC 169 WG11 '​Daylight in Buildings'​. Throughout that time he led both the formulation and the drafting of the daylight part of the standard. In a major break with all previous standards, the methodology (which is normative) bases the targets (which are informative) on the provision of absolute levels of daylight illumination rather than simply relative levels (e.g. 2% daylight factor). ​ +Since 2011 Prof Mardaljevic has served as 'UK Principal Expert'​ for European Committee for Standardisation CEN/TC 169 WG11 '​Daylight in Buildings'​. Throughout that time he led both the formulation and the drafting of the daylight part of the standard. In a major break with all previous standards, the methodology (which is normative) bases the targets (which are informative) on the provision of absolute levels of daylight illumination rather than simply relative levels (e.g. 2% daylight factor). ​ 
 + 
 +The standard was adopted by the UK in May 2019: //"​This British Standard is the UK implementation of EN 17037:2018. It supersedes BS 8206‑2:​2008,​ which is withdrawn."//​ [[https://​shop.bsigroup.com/​ProductDetail?​pid=000000000030342286|BS EN 17037:2018 Daylight in buildings]]
  
 [[https://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0360132316303043|J. Mardaljevic and J. Christoffersen. ‘Climate connectivity’ in the daylight factor basis of building standards. Building and Environment,​ 113:​200–209,​ 2 2017]] [[https://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0360132316303043|J. Mardaljevic and J. Christoffersen. ‘Climate connectivity’ in the daylight factor basis of building standards. Building and Environment,​ 113:​200–209,​ 2 2017]]
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-Extensive simulations were used to assist the building owner and manufacturers in making informed decisions on the design and control of an automated roller shade and electric lighting control system for The New York Times Headquarters in the pre- and post-bid phases of the project. ​ A prior monitored field study in a full-scale mockup answered initial questions concerning technical feasibility and performance benefits of automated control. Simulations enabled extension of the monitored field study to the final building in its complex urban context.+Mardaljevic carried out all of the climate-based daylight modelling for this landmark evaluation. ​Extensive simulations were used to assist the building owner and manufacturers in making informed decisions on the design and control of an automated roller shade and electric lighting control system for The New York Times Headquarters in the pre- and post-bid phases of the project. ​ A prior monitored field study in a full-scale mockup answered initial questions concerning technical feasibility and performance benefits of automated control. Simulations enabled extension of the monitored field study to the final building in its complex urban context.
  
 Radiance simulations were used for a variety of purposes, from understanding the effects of urban shadow on shade useage to assisting with pre-calibration of photosensor sensitivity in a complex daylit interior environment. ​ Time-lapsed images enabled stakeholders (building owner and manufacturers) to visualize the daylit environment of the final building in its urban context with automated shade control and assess how well visual comfort (direct sun, surface luminance), daylight quality (illuminance level and distribution),​ and view were to be addressed by the system at different orientations and locations within the building. ​ Inherently, a top-down roller shade compromises daylight when lowered to control direct sun and glare. ​ Simulations were also used to determine whether minor adjustments to the shade control algorithm could increase interior daylight levels without compromising visual comfort. ​ All of the above simulations were made for a discrete set of days, typically solstice and equinox days using CIE clear and overcast sky conditions and was sufficient for the directed purpose.  ​ Radiance simulations were used for a variety of purposes, from understanding the effects of urban shadow on shade useage to assisting with pre-calibration of photosensor sensitivity in a complex daylit interior environment. ​ Time-lapsed images enabled stakeholders (building owner and manufacturers) to visualize the daylit environment of the final building in its urban context with automated shade control and assess how well visual comfort (direct sun, surface luminance), daylight quality (illuminance level and distribution),​ and view were to be addressed by the system at different orientations and locations within the building. ​ Inherently, a top-down roller shade compromises daylight when lowered to control direct sun and glare. ​ Simulations were also used to determine whether minor adjustments to the shade control algorithm could increase interior daylight levels without compromising visual comfort. ​ All of the above simulations were made for a discrete set of days, typically solstice and equinox days using CIE clear and overcast sky conditions and was sufficient for the directed purpose.  ​
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 +===== Urban Solar Mapping =====
 +
 +{{:​academic:​urban-solar.jpg?​800|}}
 +
 +The first demonstration of urban irradiation mapping was the San Francisco VRML model ~1999. That pioneering study proved that it was possible to quantify the solar potential in large urban setting, whatever the complexity. It also showed how to link an image-based solution to GIS tools. A decade or so later, solar mapping linked to GIS became a valuable tool to aid the goal of improving urban sustainability.
 +
 +See also [[academic:​urban-solar|Urban Solar Micro-Climate]]
 +
 +[[https://​repository.lboro.ac.uk/​articles/​An_image-based_analysis_of_solar_radiation_for_urban_settings/​11826759/​1|J. Mardaljevic and M. Rylatt. An image-based analysis of solar radiation for urban settings. In PLEA - Passive and Low Energy Architecture,​ Cambridge, UK, pages 442–447, 2000.]]
 +
 +[[https://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science/​article/​pii/​S0378778802000774|J. Mardaljevic and M. Rylatt. Irradiation mapping of complex urban environments:​ an image-based approach. Energy and Buildings, 35(1):​27–35,​ 1 2003.]]
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 ===== Climate-Based Daylight Modelling ===== ===== Climate-Based Daylight Modelling =====
  
research-impact.1552820908.txt.gz · Last modified: 2019/03/17 12:08 by cbdm